The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: says the research (2023)

The Future of Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Research Says...

Research supports some ideas about online learning and refutes others.

WithKyong Jae KimmCurtis J. Bonk

Institutions of higher education are increasingly embracing online education, and the number of students enrolled in distance education programs is growing rapidly at colleges and universities in the United States. In response to these changes in enrollment requirements, many states, institutions, and organizations are working on strategic plans to implement online education. At the same time, misconceptions and myths related to the difficulty of teaching and learning online, the technologies available to support online teaching, the support and compensation needed by high-quality instructors, and the needs of students create challenges for such vision statements and documents. design.

In part, this confusion grows as higher education explores dozens of e-learning technologies (eg, e-books, simulations, text messages, podcasts, wikis, blogs), with new ones emerging every week. These technologies confront educators and administrators in an era of constant budget cuts and review. Adding to this dilemma, bored students are abandoning online courses while demanding richer and more engaging online learning experiences.1Given the demand for online learning, the abundance of online technologies to be integrated into instruction, budget considerations, and opportunities for innovation, we argue that online learning environments face an “electronic perfect storm” that unites pedagogy, technology and accurate learning.2

Given the great stir created by the perfect storm surrounding e-learning, it is not surprising that there are mixed opinions about the benefits of online teaching and learning in higher education. As seen in many versions of itJournal of Higher EducationOver the past decade, excitement and enthusiasm for e-learning has alternated with a general sense of pessimism, frustration, bankruptcy and lawsuits, and a myriad of other struggles.3Of course, the question arises as to where online learning is headed. Navigating e-learning requires an understanding of the current state and future direction of online teaching and learning.

The study described here involved faculty and administrators at postsecondary institutions, primarily in the United States, to explore future trends in e-learning. Specifically, the study makes predictions about changes in the roles of online instructors, student expectations and needs related to online learning, pedagogical innovation, and the intended use of technology in teaching and learning.

Review of the bibliography

We begin this project with a review of previous studies on the issues and trends of online teaching and learning in higher education.

Online teaching and learning

A recent survey of higher education in the United States reported that more than 2.35 million students were enrolled in online courses in the fall of 2004.4This report also noted that online education is becoming an important long-term strategy for many higher education institutions. Given the rapid growth of online education and its importance to higher education institutions, it is imperative that higher education institutions offer quality online programs.

The literature examines student performance and satisfaction as two means of evaluating the quality of online education. Studies focusing on academic achievement have shown mixed reviews,5but some researchers point out that online education can be at least as effective as traditional classroom instruction.6Several research studies on student satisfaction with online courses or programs have reported both satisfied and dissatisfied students.7

Teacher training and support is another critical element of quality online education. Many researchers argue that instructors play a different role than traditional classroom instructors when delivering online courses.8as well as when teaching web-enhanced home courses.9These new roles for online instructors require training and support. A number of case studies of teacher development programs show that such programs can have a positive impact on the transition of teachers from face-to-face teaching to an online environment.10

Pedagogy and Technology for Online Education

Several research studies have covered effective pedagogical strategies for online teaching. Partlow and Gibbs, for example, found from a Delphi study with experts in educational technology and constructivism that online courses designed around the principles of constructivism should be relevant, interactive, project-based, and collaborative, while also give students some choice or control. learning. .11In addition, Keeton researched effective online teaching practices based on a framework of effective teaching practices in face-to-face teaching in higher education. In this study, Keeton interviewed teachers from postsecondary institutions who evaluated the effectiveness of online teaching strategies. These instructors gave the highest ratings to online teaching strategies that "create an environment that supports and encourages inquiry," "broadens students' subject matter experience," and "challenges students to actively and critically reflect on their growing knowledge base."12

In another study of teaching practices, Bonk found that only 23-45% of online instructors surveyed actually used online activities related to critical and creative thinking, hands-on presentations, interactive workshops, data analysis, and scientific simulations. , although 40% of participants said that these activities were very important in online learning environments.13In fact, a significant gap separated actual and preferred online educational practices.

Technology has played and continues to play an important role in the development and expansion of online education. Thus, many universities have reported an increase in the use of online tools. Over the past decade, many efforts have sought to integrate emerging Internet technologies into the teaching and learning process in higher education. Several studies have reported cases related to the use of blogs to promote student collaboration and reflection.14Some researchers have also promoted the plausibility of using wikis for online student collaboration,15and podcasting is beginning to attract the attention of educators for its educational use.sixteenWhile some discussion in the literature relates to effective practices in using emerging technologies for online education, empirical evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of such technologies, or perhaps more importantly, evidence-based guidance on how to use such tools effectively. is missing.


This study was based on a survey of people who believe they have relevant experience and knowledge of the factors influencing the current and future state of online education.


An online survey was conducted of university professors and administrators who were members of the Multimedia Educational Resources for Online Teaching and Learning (MERLOT) or the Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET), both major online education associations. MERLOT is a free and open membership resource for higher education that, at the time of this study, includes more than 12,000 university professors, instructional designers, and administrators who share and rate Web resources and materials (today, MERLOT has more of 35,000 members). WCET is an organization with 500 to 600 members that provides resources and information on the effective use of telecommunications technology in learning. We also surveyed those who had posted one or more course syllabi on the World Lecture Hall (WLH), which has approximately 2,000 members and was developed by the University of Texas for professors to share syllabi.

This study is part of a long-term effort to understand the use of technology in teaching, both in higher education and in vocational training. The second author has previously surveyed MERLOT and WLH members about the state of online learning.17as corporate trainers in online training18and blended learning.

(Video) Why e-learning is killing education | Aaron Barth | TEDxKitchenerED


Using an online survey service, SurveyShare, we developed an online questionnaire as a tool for this research study. The questionnaire consisted of 42 questions grouped into three sections on the current status and future trends of online education in higher education. The first section included 10 questions about respondents' demographics. The second section included seven questions about the current state of online learning in the respondents' organizations. The third section included data on predictions about online teaching and learning. The survey used a variety of question types, including Likert-type, multiple-choice and open-ended questions.

Data collection and analysis

The survey was conducted from late November 2003 to early January 2004. An email invitation was sent to the sample of instructors, instructional designers, and administrators described above. The email included information about the study, as well as the URL of the research website. Of the more than 12,000 who received the email application, 562 completed the survey. Participants answered the survey anonymously and the data was stored in the hosted online survey service. Descriptive data analyzes (such as frequencies) were performed using the data analysis tool provided on the online survey website.


Our study confirmed some common beliefs about e-learning, disproved others, and provided a number of predictions for the future of technology-based education.

Demographics of Internet Educators

66% of respondents held educational positions (teachers, tutors or lecturers), while almost a quarter were administrators or instructional designers. Respondents represented a variety of institution types: approximately half worked at four-year public colleges or universities; 23% from community colleges or vocational institutions; and 16% from private institutions of higher education. A large majority (87 percent) said their institutions offered online courses, and about 70 percent of them taught online courses.

As shown in Figure 1, respondents' experience with online teaching ranged from none to more than 10 years. Although not all respondents had experience teaching online, more than 95 percent had experience incorporating computer or web technology into their personal teaching.

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The survey results show that women seem to be teaching online in much greater numbers than a few years ago. In fact, more than half of the respondents (53%) were women. Such findings were surprising because a similar study conducted a few years earlier was dominated by male instructors who were tenured professors at top universities.19Perhaps instructors became more comfortable with teaching and sharing activities online during the few years between surveys, or perhaps support for instructors on campuses improved, or both.

emerging technology

When asked about various emerging technologies for online education, 27% of respondents predicted that the use of course management systems (CMS) will increase dramatically in the next five years. Respondents also said that video streaming, online testing and examination tools, and learning object libraries would see much greater use on campus during this time. Between 5-10% of respondents expected to see increases in asynchronous discussion tools, video conferencing, synchronous presentation tools, and online testing.

The survey also asked which technology would have the biggest impact on the delivery of online learning over the next five years. Respondents could choose one of 14 key technologies. About 18% of respondents predicted that reusable content objects and wireless technologies would have the most significant impact. Smaller percentages (7 to almost 14 percent) chose peer collaborations, digital libraries, simulations and games, assistive technologies, and digital portfolios. Conversely, less than 5% predicted that e-books, intelligent agents, tablets, virtual worlds, language support, and wearable technologies would have a significant impact on online learning. These findings seem to reflect the perceived importance of online technologies for sharing and using pre-existing content.

In addition, respondents predicted that advances in Internet technology (for example, widely expanded bandwidth and wireless Internet connections) are likely to increase the use of multimedia and interactive simulations or games in online learning over the next five to ten years. However, only one in 10 predicted that advances in Internet technology would improve video conferencing or international collaboration, and only one in 16 believed it would offer greater opportunities to interact with experts or professionals in the field. Once again, the focus was on improving content and delivering relevant content, not on social interactions, cultural exchanges, or the new feedback channels that wider bandwidth could provide. Such responses indicate that respondents still view learning as content-based, not based on social interactions and distributed intelligence. The emphasis remains on a knowledge transfer educational approach, not rich in peer feedback, online teaching or cognitive learning.

Massive student lawsuits

Our study revealed a number of trends related to areas of growth in online education, future needs for online instructors, and the dominance of online over face-to-face instruction.

Development of online programs/degrees.Comparison of current online offerings and projected future online offerings at respondents' institutions produces predictions about areas of growth in online programs and degrees. Most respondents expected significant growth in online certification and recertification programs in the coming years, as well as associate degrees. However, respondents predicted little growth in the number of institutions offering online master's or doctoral programs in the future. While more than half of respondents (54 percent) expected their institutions to offer online master's or doctoral programs in the coming years, nearly as many (53 percent) reported that their institutions offer online master's or doctoral programs. Instead, respondents predicted that certification and recertification programs would see a 10-20% increase over current offerings. Such responses indicate that higher education institutions may be wise to explore certificate and short program offerings rather than full degree programs.

Online instructor preparation.Will online educators be ready to meet the challenges posed by the projected increase in student demand for online education? About half of the respondents predicted that the financial support and pedagogical competence of online instructors would significantly affect the success of their online programs (see Table 1). In addition, technical competence of instructors was the third most pressing factor. However, as shown in Table 2, pedagogical skills were considered more important than technological skills for effective online teaching. Regarding the pedagogical competency needs of online instructors, most respondents expected that online instructors would have received some form of training in teaching online, internally or externally, by 2010.

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The rise of blended learning.The survey asked respondents for their predictions for the growth of online education in the coming years. Respondents indicated that more emphasis is expected on blended learning (teaching that combines in-person and online offerings) than on courses that are completely online. Respondents predicted a clear shift from about a quarter of today's blended courses to the vast majority of courses with some web component by the end of the decade (see Figure 2).

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improved pedagogy

While the use of CMS in higher education is growing rapidly and is likely to underlie the rapid increase in the number of online students over the past decade,21Some researchers argue that CMSs are promoted as ways of managing learners rather than promoting rich and interactive experiences.22As a result, improving pedagogy is perhaps the most important factor in navigating the perfect electronic storm. In the present study, respondents made predictions about the quality of online education in the near future and how online courses will be delivered and evaluated.

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The quality of future online education.Respondents generally agreed with Sloan's recent reports that the quality of online education will improve in the future.2360% of respondents expected the quality of online courses to be the same as traditional instruction by 2006 (see Figure 3). Additionally, a majority of respondents predicted that the quality of online courses would be higher (47%) or equal (39%) than traditional education by 2013. Only 8% predicted that the quality of online courses would be lower in 2013 .

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Similarly, a large majority of respondents predicted that learning outcomes for online students would be the same (39 percent) or better (42 percent) than traditionally taught students by 2013. Course quality and outcomes will steadily and significantly improve over the next decade. Although we do not ask about the reasons for the increase in quality, these numbers should be interesting and valuable to administrators, instructors, students, and other stakeholders of online learning.

When it comes to factors that can improve student success online, respondents said empowering students to self-regulate their learning was most needed (22 percent), followed by better measures of student readiness (17 percent) . percent, better assessment of student performance (17 percent), and better CMS for tracking student learning. Nine percent said additional technology training is needed. This concern for learner self-regulation is ironic in a world dominated and driven by learning management systems primarily used to manage learners, as discussed above. Follow-up research can examine whether students perceive this mixed message and whether they prefer to manage themselves online or participate in more self-directed online environments.

As Carmean and Haefner argued, there is a need for CMS environments that promote deeper learning and student engagement.24They noted that such environments can promote student choice among different activities, reflection, learning, synthesis, real-world problem solving, and rich and timely feedback. More recently, Weigel added to this argument by suggesting that the next generation of CMS should foster a more student-centered environment, rich in critical thinking, student exploration, peer learning and knowledge development, interdisciplinary experiences that integrate a community of educators ( professionals, leaders, graduates). and others) and educational opportunities.25

Online teaching skills.The skills of instructors to teach online are critical to the quality of online education. Unlike our previous study on the state of online learning in 2001, which included many questions about online learning tools and resources, this study focused more on learning outcomes and pedagogical skills. For example, this study found that the most important skills for an online instructor in the coming years will be how to mediate or facilitate learning and how to develop or plan high-quality online courses (see Table 2). Being a subject matter expert was the next most important skill. In fact, the results suggest that planning and coordination skills are perhaps more important than actual “teaching” or lecturing skills in online courses. As Salmon pointed out, online instructors are facilitators or facilitators of student learning.26

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Pedagogical Techniques.More than half of respondents predicted that online collaboration, case-based learning, and problem-based learning (PBL) would be the teaching methods of choice for online instructors in the next decade. Conversely, few respondents expected instructors to rely on lectures, models, or Socratic instruction for their future online instruction (see Table 3). In other words, respondents predicted that more student-centered techniques would be used in the future, indicating a marked shift from traditional teacher-directed approaches.

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Existing research shows that online instructors tend to use easy-to-use tools, resources, and strategies rather than complex PBL, virtual teams, cross-cultural collaboration, simulations, and other forms of rich interactive media.27If the prediction of more student-centered online pedagogies holds true, it would be interesting to study whether online teachers transfer these pedagogical skills to their face-to-face teaching activities.

Our findings also showed that overall, respondents saw the Web in the coming years more as a tool for team building or virtual collaboration, critical thinking, and increased student participation than as an opportunity for student knowledge generation, ideas, and creative expression. This is not surprising given that most teaching in higher education focuses on the consumption and evaluation of knowledge rather than its creation. Online education units and departments may need to provide more examples of how to successfully integrate creative and productive tasks and activities online.

Evaluating and evaluating online courses.Evaluation is an important part of ensuring the quality of online courses and programs. Table 4 summarizes the respondents' predictions for future trends regarding the assessment of online learning. When asked how to most effectively measure the quality of online education over the next decade, 44 percent said the most effective way would be to compare the performance of online students to that of students in face-to-face classrooms, followed by student performance in simulated real classrooms. -Global activity assignments (15 percent), ROI calculations (10 percent), and student course evaluations (9 percent). Clearly, respondents believe that face-to-face instruction provides a valid benchmark for teaching and learning outcomes and that online performance should at least match its effectiveness. These views, while politically important, seem to overlook that much of the learning that takes place online could not take place in a face-to-face fashion (for example, asynchronous online discussions or webinars). It also assumes that face-to-face teaching is superior. What if institutions took the opposite stance and evaluated in-person classes based on their ability to achieve what online instruction can?

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In terms of assessment formats to be used in the coming years, respondents predicted that online practice tests and quizzes would be the most widely used, followed by online surveys and polls, course evaluations, and online quizzes and tests. In particular, more than 90% of respondents predicted that online surveys would be used as an important student research or teaching tool in addition to student and course evaluation. This finding confirms our belief that online surveys offer a student-centered opportunity because they allow students to collect, analyze, and report on real-world data and projects.

Discussion and conclusion

As higher education institutions continue to embrace and discuss online learning, it is important to predict where the field will go. What could the next generation of online learning environments look like? Will they move from storing students in online environments to engaging them in interactive and engaging activities? What technological and pedagogical advantages will they offer? Current studies allow us to see the pedagogical and technological possibilities. Clearly, we are entering a unique and exciting era of online teaching and learning. And maybe the perfect storm is becoming less cloudy and threatening.

Consequences of discoveries

Higher education institutions must consider whether they are prepared to meet the increasing demands of students in the coming years. First, most respondents agreed that blended learning would be more important in higher education in the future. While some institutions have already embraced blended learning, many others are taking longer to embrace it for a variety of reasons. Institutional leadership may be critical for faculty to receive adequate support to implement changes in the instructional process.

To improve the quality of online education as envisioned in this study, campuses must also consider the pedagogical aspects of online learning. Collaboration, case learning and PBL are likely to be the methods of choice for online instructors, with few relying solely on traditional methods. The data presented here also suggest that the continued explosion of online learning will attract increased attention in workshops, courses, and curricula on how to moderate or guide online learning. Since many respondents expect to receive some form of training and support from their institutions to be ready for online instruction, colleges and universities should consider how to meet these needs.

(Video) The Future of Online Teaching and Learning

Additionally, our study shows that postsecondary institutions are finally focusing on how online learning can build students' assessment and collaboration skills. In fact, most now see the Web's potential in the coming years as a tool for team building or virtual collaboration, critical thinking, and greater student engagement, though not necessarily as a tool for creative expression. Do today's CMSs provide tools to harness the potential of the Web for innovative teaching and learning? Perhaps recent developments in open source educational software will prompt CMS vendors to develop and market more compelling educational tools and resources.

This research also predicts tremendous growth in online certification and recertification programs, as well as some growth in graduate and associate degree programs over the next decade. In terms of technology, the study reveals an interest among online educators in wireless technologies, simulations, digital libraries, and reusable content objects. Perhaps we are entering a world where learning objects will be close to us. Learning materials for different subjects are likely to be something you can pick up, such as magazines and newspapers, on the way to a plane, bus or train. Also, as bandwidth increases with next-generation Internet technologies and resources, the simulation tasks and games students engage in online will become more realistic and authentic.

Study limitations and research recommendations

It has been over two years since we conducted the survey. This time, we had the opportunity to see how the predictions made by the respondents performed. We continue to see accelerated growth in student demands for online learning, as well as the potential to improve online pedagogy due, in part, to the recent open source movement. Predictions related to emerging technologies appear to have been inaccurate, with only 1% saying that blog usage would increase dramatically by 2008. Given the thousands of new blogs every day, it's safe to say that this prediction did not has power.

This study did not investigate actual online teaching and learning practices. Some responses were likely related to recent fads that may or may not be sustainable. Furthermore, we do not survey students' perceptions of online learning trends and possibilities. A survey of students may show that they consider different technologies important and are on the threshold of significant development. In a student-centered world, who can better predict current technology trends: educators or students? This study also showed that blended learning is perhaps a more important area of ​​development than fully online learning. Subsequent studies can focus on aspects of blended learning that institutions need to address, such as types of blended learning, activities that lead to successful blended learning, and training instructors for blended learning situations.28

final notes

1. C. J. Bonk, "Online Teaching in an Online World" (Executive Summary), USDLA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2002, <> (accessed 8 Aug 2006); and C. J. Bonk, "Online Training in an Online World" (Executive Summary), USDLA Journal, Vol. 16, no. 3, March 2002, <> (Accessed 8 August 2006).

2. C. J. Bonk,The perfect electronic storm: emerging technologies, improved pedagogy, high student demand and tight budgets(London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004). and K.-J. Kim, C. J. Bonk, and T. Zeng, "Examining the Future of eLearning in the Workplace: The Rise of Blended, Interactive, and Authentic Learning"E-Learn Magazine, June 2005, <> (Accessed 8 August 2006).

3. R. Detweiler, "We Can Finally Replace the Lecture",Journal of Higher Education, July 9, 2004, p. B8; e R. Zemsky and W. F. Massy, ​​"Why the E-Learning Boom Collapsed,"Journal of Higher Education, July 9, 2004, p.B6

4. E. I. Allen y J. Seaman,Growing by Degrees: Online Education in the United States, 2005(Needham, Mass.: El Consorcio Sloan, 2005).

5. I. Jung and I. Rha, "Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of online education: a literature review"Educational technology, vol. 40, no. 4, 2000, pp. 57–60; and T. Russell, "Non-significant difference effect," <> (Accessed 10 August 2006).

6. E. I. Allen y J. Seaman,Entering the mainstream: the quality and reach of online education in the United States, 2003 and 2004(Needham, Mass.: The Sloan Consortium, 2004); και T. M. Olson και R. A. Wisher, "The Efficacy of Web-Based Instruction: An Initial Consultation"International Journal of Research on Open and Distance Education, It is seen. 3, no. 2, 2002, <> (Accessed 8 August 2006).

7. For a review of the literature on online student satisfaction, see J. R. Hill et al., "Exploring Research on Internet-Based Learning: From Infrastructure to Interactions," inHandbook of Research in Communication and Educational Technology(2η έκδ.), D. H. Jonassen, ed. (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004), σελ. 100. 100. 433–460.

8. M. Sammons, "Exploring the new concept of teaching and learning in distance education", inDistance Education Handbook, M. G. Moore and W. G. Anderson, eds. (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003), σελ. 387–400.

9. R. G. Wingard, "Changes in classroom instruction in Internet-enhanced courses: a multi-institutional study."EDUCAUSE Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2004, pp. 26–35, <> (Accessed 4 August 2006).

10. J.-L. Lee and A Hirumi, "Analysis of Essential Skills and Knowledge for Teaching Online," Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Chicago, Illinois, 2004; e V. E. Varvel, Jr., M. Lindeman, and I. K. Stovall, "The Illinois Internet Network Makes the Virtual Classroom Real: A Study of an Exemplary Teacher Development Program."Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol.7, No.2, 2003, pp. 81–95.

11. K. M. Partlow and W. J. Gibbs, "Indicators of Constructivist Principles in Internet-Based Courses,"Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Vol.14, No.2, 2003, pp. 68–97.

12. M. T. Keeton, "Online Instruction Best Practices: Report of Phase I of an Congoing Study,"Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Volume 8, No. 2, 2004, pp. 75–100.

(Video) The Future of Education; Is online teaching a passing trend or a future necessity?

13. C. J. Bonk,Online teaching in an online world(Bloomington, IN: CourseShare, 2001).

14. J. Baggaley, "Blogging as a Course Management Tool"the source of technology, July/August 2003, <> (acceso el 8 de agosto de 2006); T. Martindale y D. A. Wiley, "Using Weblogs in Scholarship and Teaching",technological trends, vol. 49, nº 2, 2005, pp. 55–61; e J. A. Oravec, "Weblogs as an emerging genre in higher education",Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Vol.14, No.2, 2003, pp. 21–44.

15. B. Lamb, "Wide Open Spaces: Wikis, Ready or Not"EDUCAUSA Review, vol. 39, No. 5, September/October 2004, pp. 100-1 36–48, <> (Accessed 6 August 2006).

16. S. Sloan, “Podcasting in Education,” paper presented at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference, San Francisco, CA, 2005.

17. Bonk, 2001, p. cit.; Bonk, January 2002, p. city

18. Bonk, March 2002, p. city

19. Bonk, 2001, op. cit.

20. C. J. Bonk και C. R. Graham,The Blended Learning Handbook: Global Perspectives, Local Design(San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing, 2006).

21. C. Carmean και J. Haefner, "Mind Over Matter: Transforming Course Management Systems Into Effective Learning Environments"EDUCAUSA Review, vol. 37, no.6, November/December 2002, pp. 27–34, <> (Accessed 4 August 2006).

22. C.J. Bonk, R.A. Wisher, and J.-Y. Read, "Student-Centered E-Learning Supervision: Issues and Solutions, Benefits and Implications," atOnline collaborative learning: theory and practice, T.S. Roberts, επιμ. (Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2003), pp. 54–85; e J. Stephenson, "Learner-Managed Learning: An Emerging Pedagogy for Online Learning," emOnline teaching and learning: pedagogies for new technologies, J. Stephenson, ed (London: Kogan Page, 2001), pp. 219–224.

23. Allen and Seaman, 2004, op. cit., and E. I. Allen and J. Seaman,Sizing Opportunity: The Quality and Reach of Online Education in the United States, 2002 and 2003(Needham y Wellesley, Mass.: The Sloan Consortium, 2003).

24. Bonk, Wisher y Lee, op. cit.

25. V. Weigel, "From Course Management to Curriculum Capabilities: A Capabilities Approach to the Next Generation CMS"EDUCAUSA Review, vol. 40, no. 3, May/June 2005, pp, 54–67, <> (Accessed 4 August 2006).

26. G. Salmon,Online supervision: the key to online teaching and learning(Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing, 2000); και G. Salmon,E-Tivities: the key to active online learning(Sterling, Virgínia: Stylus Publishing, 2002).

27. X. Liu et al., "Use of Technology in an Online MBA Program: Issues, Trends, and Opportunities," στοHandbook of Educational Systems and Technologies Research, T. Kidd, epiμ. (Hershey, PA: Idea Group, Inc., [unprecedented]); D. Miodus

er et al., "Web-Based Learning Environments (WBLE): Current Implementation and Evolving Trends"Journal of Computer Applications and Networks, τόμ. 22, αρ. 4, 1999, σσ. 233–247; K. Peffers and S. Bloom, "Internet-based Innovation for Teaching IS Courses: The Status of Adoption: 1998-2000"Journal of Theory and Applications of Information Technology, vol. 1, no. 1, 1999; y Wingard, op. cit.

28. C. J. Bonk and C. R. Graham, ό.π. city

(Video) How is technology shaping the future of universities? | Helen O'Sullivan | TEDxUoChester

Kyong Jee Kim ([email protected]) είναι Senior Instructional Designer, Center for Academic Excellence, στο Portland State University. Curtis J. Bonk ([email protected]) is a professor in the Department of Educational Systems Technology, School of Education, Indiana University.


What do researchers say about online learning? ›

Related: How higher education lost its shine

Much of the pre-pandemic research into online higher education concluded that students in online programs did worse than students in in-person courses, with lower grades, higher dropout rates and poorer performance in subsequent classes.

Is online learning the future of education? ›

Learning Made Flexible: The flexibility of online learning is one of the main factors making it the future of education. Online learning, in contrast to traditional classroom environments, enables students to learn at their own pace and convenience.

What is the impact of online learning in higher education? ›

Some of the positive effects of virtual learning on students include increased efficiency in learning, accessibility and affordability, improvement of students' attendance, and more!

What researchers learned about online higher education during the pandemic? ›

Another study has found that providing required courses online helps students graduate more quickly, often because in-person versions of the courses are full or unavailable. Students in general are also at least somewhat more interested in learning online now than they were before the pandemic.

Is online learning as good as face to face learning research? ›

A meta‐analysis conducted by the US Department of Education finds that students who took all or part of their course online performed better, on average, than those taking the same course through traditional F2F instructions.

Is online learning effective for college students? ›

Students Gain More Knowledge Than In Standard Classes

Because online courses provide students with full control over their studies, they can work at their own pace.

Will online education replace the classroom? ›

But now the question arises whether online learning will replace school classes. Traditional schooling and online school learning both have unique advantages. Ideally, people should learn to make the best use of both systems. But school classes should not be replaced by online learning.

Will online learning replace teachers? ›

In an emergency, virtual learning can be a suitable substitute for classroom learning, but it cannot replace the classroom. Classroom learning is still the preferred method of imparting education and knowledge because it allows for the teaching of discipline.

Is online learning more effective than classroom? ›

More Interaction and Greater Ability to Concentrate

Some students also report better concentration in online classes due to the lack of classroom distractions.

How will online learning change in the future? ›

As more and more students reap the benefits of online learning, the future of online education will be shaped by augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and courses that teach skills that can't be automated, such as emotional intelligence and creativity.

What are the benefits of online learning for high school students? ›

  • The truth is, not all students are able to reach their full potential in traditional brick-and-mortar schools. ...
  • Work at Your Own Pace. ...
  • Enjoy a more flexible schedule. ...
  • Early graduation. ...
  • Customized Workspace. ...
  • Fewer Distractions. ...
  • Safe Learning Environment.
Nov 15, 2022

What is the impact of online learning to students motivation? ›

Online learning requires more self-regulation, intrinsic motivation and independence from the learner than the traditional classroom education. Keller's ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction) Model of Motivation is a framework for learners to become and remain motivated.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of online learning? ›

Summary: What are the advantages and disadvantages of online classes?
FlexibilityLack of face-to-face interaction
ConvenienceDifficulty staying motivated
Cost-effectivenessLimited access to resources and support
Access to a wider range of programmes and course offeringsTechnical difficulties
5 more rows

What is the impact and effectiveness of e-learning on teaching and learning? ›

E-Learning was viewed favorably by teachers and students as an effective tool to enhance the delivery of instruction and develop knowledge acquisition skills through transfer of learning. Conclusion –E-Learning can be considered as one of the best strategies to be adopted for teaching and learning.

What are the negative effects of online learning on students academic performance? ›

E-Learning lacks face-to-face communication

A lack of face-to-face communication with the instructor inhibits student feedback, causes social isolation, and could cause students to feel a lack of pressure. A lack of pressure is a disadvantage because it causes students to abandon their studies more easily.

What is conclusion of online learning and face-to-face learning? ›

It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person.

What is the conclusion of effectiveness of online learning? ›

In conclusion, online learning is beneficial to the students, tutors and the institution offering these courses. I would therefore recommend that online learning be implemented on all learning institutions and research on how to improve this learning process should be carried out.

Why is online learning not as good as face-to-face? ›

Online courses often require more student engagement than a face-to-face course because the instructor isn't able to monitor your progress in the same way as a physical classroom.

What challenges did you face in this face to face online teaching process? ›

What are the challenges of online learning?
  • Work organization and time management. Most teachers are required to move to online teaching almost immediately with no training and tools. ...
  • Technology shortage. ...
  • Connectivity. ...
  • Computer literacy. ...
  • Hard of hearing students. ...
  • Data privacy and insecurity.

Why do college students prefer online learning? ›

For these students, they like the ability to take classes on their own schedule and a fully-online program offers just that. A number of students like to be fully online because they prefer to be at home instead of in the classroom.

Are college students struggling with online classes? ›

We found that during the transition to remote learning, 67% of students experienced struggle.

Why virtual teaching can never ever replace classroom teaching? ›

The virtual classroom cannot replace the traditional classroom because it is by its very essence or nature not completely 'real. ' Teaching on the Internet is teaching in virtual reality, but not in reality. Does that mean that any type of education given or received on the Internet is not real? Absolutely not.

Why is online education a problem? ›

Lack of Motivation

Due to the lack of face-to-face interaction, some students find it hard to focus during online classes. The physical absence of teachers or classmates takes away the sense of urgency and motivation that students need to attend classes on time, meet deadlines, and make progress.

Will online schools replace traditional schools? ›

Online education offers many advantages, such as convenience, cost savings, and flexibility, but it lacks the social interaction and guidance that is present in traditional classrooms. Ultimately, online education can be a great supplement to traditional education, but it cannot replace it.

Can technology replace teachers in the future? ›

Can technology replace teachers? Absolutely not. We believe that technology will never replace great teachers, but technology in the hands of great teachers will be transformational. The role of a teacher is not merely confined to imparting knowledge.

Is online teaching more effective than offline teaching? ›

Only in offline classes is it possible to comprehend a subject better. Greater involvement and interaction – In face-to-face learning, there is greater interaction between the students and the lecturers. They get to participate in more class activities.

Will online learning eventually replace many forms of face to face teaching? ›

In conclusion, many forms of traditional teaching will be replaced by online learning. This new education method provides convenient environment for students and teachers by increasing of flexibility as well as performance skills of employees.

Do teachers prefer online learning? ›

More than three-fourths of the teachers preferred online teaching during the pandemic, and most preferred both physical and mixed teaching in the post-pandemic era.

Why is real school better than online? ›

Learning that happens in a traditional classroom allows students to work together face-to-face. It's more direct, it helps students develop interpersonal skills that are vital later in life. Working as part of a group in a physical setting also boosts their overall confidence and motivation to achieve more.

Do people learn better in person or online? ›

Advantages of In-Person Classes

Distractions like the internet, TV, phones and even family members can make it hard to study. In-person classes can be a chance to step away from these distractions and focus solely on learning. The routine of attending a class at the same time each week can be a helpful way to learn.

How can we make online learning more effective? ›

10 Tips for Success in Online Classes
  1. Establish a productive learning environment. ...
  2. Set a schedule for completing and reviewing assignments. ...
  3. Seek virtual interactions with your peers.
  4. Use the 'chunking' strategy to section out tasks.
  5. Try to increase your interest in the work.

What are the benefits of online learning for adults? ›

Online learning allows you to earn while you learn. You also don't need to live on campus; no dorm costs. You don't even need to drive to campus; no transportation costs. And if you care for children at home, there's no need to pay for childcare while you travel to your classes.

What are the five factors that affect online learning motivation? ›

Based on an extensive review of the literature on student motivation, Jones has developed the MUSIC model of student motivation, which identifies five main factors that contribute to student motivation: eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest, and Caring.

What is the impact of online learning students view? ›

75% of students feel more confidence joining online learning that face to face in class. That's why 60% of students think online learning can improve high quality of learning. And 70% of the teacher always accomodate their students in learning.

How students stay motivated in online classes? ›

Set small, attainable goals for each class to avoid getting discouraged and overwhelmed. Keep track of your goals by writing them on sticky notes and placing them around your home, or create a spreadsheet to track your progress. And remember, small successes will help lead to your ultimate goal — earning your degree.

What are the disadvantages of using digital media in teaching and learning? ›

1) it may be distracting to students, 2) it may disconnect students from face-to-face relationships, 3) it may make cheating easier, 4) it may disadvantage certain students, 5) it may cause students to use unreliable resources for learning, 6) it may make curriculum planning more difficult or expensive, 7) it may ...

What are the advantages of online distance learning? ›

6 Advantages of Distance Learning for Students
  • No More Forgotten Homework. ...
  • Reduced Social Anxiety. ...
  • Flexible Scheduling Opportunities. ...
  • Stay Healthy and Keep Others Safe. ...
  • Accessibility for Everyone. ...
  • Self-Paced Learning. ...
  • No More Commute. ...
  • Works With Atypical Work Schedules.
Oct 21, 2021

What are the advantages and disadvantages of online education essay? ›

In conclusion, online classes offer several advantages, including flexibility, cost savings, and access to resources. However, they also come with certain disadvantages, such as isolation, technical difficulties, lack of structure, and reduced interaction.

What is the biggest advantage of e learning? ›

e learning is time-efficient

It's estimated that eLearning can reduce learning time by between 25 and 60% compared to physical in-person learning. This is because learners can fit learning around their own schedules and are not slowed down by the needs of other learners.

What are the advantages of e learning in teaching and learning? ›

In this post, we explore five benefits of online learning for educators.
  • Access more teaching opportunities. Online learning provides educators with more opportunities to teach in a variety of ways. ...
  • Communicate more effectively with students. ...
  • Hold students accountable. ...
  • Learn new technical skills. ...
  • Save time.
Aug 20, 2020

What are the positive impact of e learning on teachers? ›

The most important benefits are flexibility, more engaging classes, the opportunity to grow skills, and going global. E-learning also makes the bond between students and teachers tighter. Teachers become more concentrated on students, check their homework individually, and have extra classes with them.

How does online learning affect social skills negatively? ›

They may also miss face-to-face interactions with fellow students. For some students, this lack of social interaction – and the accompanying need to be self-motivated to get their work done – can lead to feelings of isolation.

Does learning virtually impact students experience pass rates and efficiency change for the better or worse? ›

The results are generally consistent with past research: Online coursework generally yields worse student performance than in-person coursework. The negative effects of online course-taking are particularly pronounced for less-academically prepared students and for students pursuing bachelor's degrees.

What are the positive and negative effects of distance learning to students? ›

Students of all types can experience notable benefits through remote learning, including new skills, more freedom, learning at their own pace, family time, and problem solving. However, cons include increased home responsibility, isolation, and technical issues.

What do research studies tend to confirm about online learning quizlet? ›

What do research studies tend to confirm about online learning? Dropout rates are higher in online courses.

Do students learn better in an online or in-person school setting? ›

Effectiveness. While some studies have found in-person classes to be more effective on average than online classes, some students do better with virtual learning than in-person courses. However, students who struggle with in-person education tend to have an even more difficult time learning online.

What percentage of students struggle with online learning? ›

We found that during the transition to remote learning, 67% of students experienced struggle. The most reported struggles included: shifts in class format, effective study habits, time management, and increased external commitments.

Why research on e-learning is important? ›

Online learning helps students to create and communicate new ideas. You get the chance to uplift your skills and gain knowledge apart from school education. One of the prime importance of e-learning is that it helps students and teachers develop advanced skills.

How important is online research to us? ›

Researching helps people achieve their dreams and grab opportunities. These can be people looking for securing jobs, scholarships, business collaborations among others. Without research a person may fall prey to illegal recruitments.

What is one of the current challenges related to online schooling? ›

Infrastructural Problems. Digital Literacy and Technical Issues. Lack of In-person Interaction. Lack of EdTech and Online Learning Options for Special Needs of Students.

Is online teaching learning more effective than traditional teaching learning? ›

More Social Interaction and Collaboration:

The traditional education model allows students to interact with each other in and outside of school. But those are mainly face-to-face or telephonic interactions. Online learning model allows further interaction by providing an online platform for discussions.

What is the success rate of online schools? ›

Success rates tend to be higher in face-to-face classes. In Fall 15, face-to-face classes had a success rate of 69% versus only 60% in online classes, a gap of 9%. However, this gap has been decreasing, with only a 3% gap in success rates in Fall 19 (70% in face-to-face versus 67% online).

What is the success rate of online learning? ›

19. In 2020, the graduation rate for K-12 students was just 54.6% The National Education Policy Center Report 2021 found that the graduation rates of K-12 was significantly lower with just 54.6% of virtual schools and 64.3% in blended schools when the overall average of national graduation rate is 85%.

Why is online school better than in school learning? ›

Online courses teach students how to manage their time better since the student bears the responsibility of engaging with the course instead of simply showing up to class on an assigned day and time. As a result, students not only gain knowledge from the coursework, but they also sharpen their time management skills.

What is the biggest challenge faced by students today? ›

Some of the most common areas where students face challenges include:
  • Academics.
  • Accessibility.
  • Finances.
  • Living environments.
  • Mental health and wellness.
  • Relationship difficulties.
Apr 26, 2023

Is online learning becoming more popular? ›

As demand for online education has grown, the market has become increasingly competitive, with providers vying for attention from a broad set of prospective students. From 2011 to 2021, the number of learners reached by massive open online courses (MOOCs) increased from 300,000 to 220 million.


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